Ukraine, Russia and the Evaluation of Agricultural Commodities Markets

Ukraine and Russia have grow to be an necessary supply for the worldwide provide of main agricultural commodities over the previous 25 years (farmdoc day by day, 11 October 2012). These nations, usually collectively known as the Black Sea area together with a number of different Japanese European and Central Asian nations, are the main cereals (corn, wheat and barley) and oilseeds (particularly sunflower and sunflower) manufacturing. and play an necessary position in exports. Oil) (Glauber and Laborde, 2022). Along with the direct toll it can tackle individuals within the area, final week’s Russian invasion of Ukraine launched a number of financial issues, together with the impression of the battle on world agricultural markets.

This text summarizes the position of Ukraine and Russia within the manufacturing and export of corn, wheat, barley, soybean and sunflower oils. The manufacturing and export share knowledge offered in all figures is calculated from the USDA International Agricultural Service’s Manufacturing, Provide and Distribution Database (USDA-FAS PSD). Be aware that we’ve got chosen to think about the members of the European Union (EU) as a single entity to think about manufacturing and export shares and to check with different nations.


International manufacturing and export shares for wheat, on common from 2017 to 2021, are reported in Determine 1 for the highest 7 wheat producing nations. Russia and Ukraine account for 14% of worldwide wheat manufacturing and rank 1.scheduled tribe and 5th, respectively. Each nations are main exporters, offering about 30% of worldwide wheat exports. The European Union, the US and Canada are additionally main producers and exporters of wheat. China and India are main wheat producers however web importers and supply comparatively small parts of worldwide wheat exports. Different nations with considerably bigger wheat export shares embody Australia (8.4%), Argentina (6.6%), Kazakhstan (4.1%), and Turkey (3.4%).

corn cob

The manufacturing and export shares for corn within the chosen nations are proven in Determine 2. The US stays the main world producer (32%) and exporter (33%) for corn. Brazil (18.3%) and Argentina (20%) rank 2Ra and threethird within the export of corn. Ukraine now 4. is on the rankth, contributing greater than 15% to world corn exports. Russia 6. rankth With 2.3% share in maize exports. Particularly, Ukraine has been a significant provider of corn to China. The shift in the direction of importing extra US corn into China started in 2020 after a poor Ukrainian harvest (He, Hess, & Zhang 2021).

The rise within the share of world corn manufacturing and exports from the Black Sea area (Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan) has been substantial, fueled by a rise in manufacturing in China and each manufacturing and exports to South America over the previous twenty years. ,farmdoc day by day, June 2, 2017 and November 18, 2020). Corn manufacturing in India, Mexico and South Africa exceeds that of Russia, however accounts for smaller export shares of the world.


Whereas the European Union holds the main manufacturing share and is the main area for world barley exports, Russia and Ukraine account for about 19% of barley manufacturing and about 32% of barley exports. Australia, Canada and Argentina are different main contributors to world barley manufacturing and exports.

soybean and vegetable oil

The US and South America proceed to dominate the worldwide soybean market. Greater than 82% of world soybean manufacturing and about 90% of soybean exports come from the Americas, Brazil and Argentina. Russia and Ukraine each rank within the high 10 for soybean manufacturing and exports, however signify solely 2.3% of world manufacturing and a couple of.1% of world exports.

Nonetheless, Ukraine and Russia are the main producers and exporters of sunflower oil, accounting for a 9% manufacturing share and about 2% export share for the world vegetable oil market. Ukraine and Russia account for about 60% of world sunflower oil manufacturing, and each nations account for greater than 75% of world exports.


The macroeconomic implications of final week’s Russian invasion of Ukraine, and the ensuing sanctions imposed on Russia by the worldwide group, may embody disruption of commerce flows, larger inflationary pressures, and elevated volatility in a variety of worldwide markets.

The invasion is prone to have an effect on the spring planting season for Ukrainian farmers, the magnitude of which can depend upon the size and severity of the battle. The divergence in commerce flows would improve value pressures and volatility for agricultural commodities, for which Russia and Ukraine play a comparatively bigger position in world manufacturing and commerce. This elevated volatility was noticed in buying and selling exercise in wheat and corn futures final week with vary (max) costs each up and down over a number of days.

The shortcoming of Ukrainian and Russian agricultural commodities to succeed in world markets may lead to larger costs than would profit grain and oilseed producers in different main producing and exporting nations such because the US, nevertheless, market disruptions stemming from the battle and Russian sanctions. It’ll additionally lead to enormous financial price. Larger agricultural commodity costs will damage web agricultural importers, particularly in growing elements of the world.

Different prices of battle might also have an effect on US agriculture: elevated volatility introduces each alternatives and challenges from a danger administration perspective. Larger costs for agricultural inputs will offset the advantages of upper corn, soybean and wheat costs for American farmers to a considerably unknown diploma. Russia and its allies Belarus are main world suppliers of vitality and fertilizer merchandise that might be critically affected by sanctions (Glauber and Laborde, 2022). With vitality and fertilizer costs and volatility already at excessive ranges, the invasion of Ukraine creates extra uncertainty about enter prices and availability that might nonetheless have an effect on the 2022 crop yr and lengthen to future crop years as effectively. may.


Glauber, J. and D. Laborde. “How Will Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine Have an effect on International Meals Safety?” Worldwide Meals Coverage Analysis Institute (IFPRI) Weblog: Difficulty Publish. 24 February 2022.

He, X., DJ Hayes, and W. Zhang. 2021. “China’s Agricultural Imports Beneath Section I Deal: Is Success Attainable?” Card Coverage Transient 20-PB 29, Iowa State College.

Zulof, C. “Variable Distribution of World Corn Manufacturing within the twenty first Century.” FarmDoc Every day (10):199, Division of Agricultural and Client Economics, College of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, November 18, 2020.

Zulof, C. “Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine (KRU) and the World Grain Market.” FarmDoc Every day (2):197, Division of Agricultural and Client Economics, College of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 11 October 2012.

Zuloff, C., A. Strains and N. Recognize. “Spanning the Globe – Manufacturing and Export of Corn, Soybeans, and Wheat Since 2000: Deal with the Black Sea Area and the Americas.” FarmDoc Every day (7:102), Division of Agricultural and Client Economics, College of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, June 2, 2017.

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